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Category Archives: General Forensics

Crime and Science Radio: A Fly for the Prosecution: An Interview with Forensic Entomologist Dr. Lee Goff

Join Jan Burke and me as we discuss bugs and bodies with forensic entomologist Dr. M. Lee Goff.

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BIO: Dr. M. Lee Goff is one of the founding members of the American Board of Forensic Entomology, from which he retired in 2013.  Professor Emeritus, in Forensic Sciences at  Chaminade University of Hawaii and Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Hawaii, Manoa,, he received his B.S. in Zoology from the University of Hawaii at Manoa in 1966, M.S. in Biology from California State University, Long Beach in 1974, and Ph.D. in Entomology from the University of Hawaii at Manoa in 1977. He was Professor of Entomology and Chair of the Entomology Graduate Program at University of Hawaii at Manoa from 1983 until 2001. He then moved to Chaminade University of Honolulu as Director of the Forensic Sciences Program. Dr. Goff has been involved in forensic entomology for a period of over 25 years. He is currently a consultant in forensic entomology for the Office of the Medical Examiner, City and County of Honolulu and other state and federal agencies throughout the world.  He also serves as a consultant for the crime dramas CSI and Bones. He is curator of a traveling museum exhibition called CSI: Crime Scene Insects.

Additionally Dr. Goff has served as a member of the instructional staff for the FBI Academy course in Detection and Recovery of Human Remains taught at Quantico, Virginia. He has published over 200 papers in scientific journals, authored the popular book, A Fly for the Prosecution, co-edited the recent publication “Advances in Forensic Entomology” and participated in over 350 homicide investigations, consulting on cases worldwide.

LISTENhttp://www.blogtalkradio.com/suspensemagazine/2015/04/30/crime-and-science-radio-with-special-guest-dr-lee-goff

LINKS:

Professor Emeritus Goff’s faculty Page on Chaminade University’s site https://www.chaminade.edu/natural-sciences/faculty/M_Lee_Goff.php

PBS Nature‘s Crime Scene Creatures Interview: Forensic Entomologist Lee Goff http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/crime-scene-creatures-interview-forensic-entomologist-lee-goff/302/

Dr. Goff Interviewed on KHNL-TV https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnNe8SNAz08

National Geographic Channel 2004 Interview with Dr. Goff http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/04/0423_040423_tvbugman.html

American Board of Forensic Entomology http://www.forensicentomologist.org

Insects.org  http://www.insects.org

Acarological Society of America https://sites.google.com/site/acarologicalsociety/home

Acarology: The Study of Mites and Ticks (UK’s Natural History Museum) http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/acarology/

Entomological Society of America http://www.entsoc.org/home

Insect Collections, Zoos, Museums, and Butterfly Gardens in North America http://www.entsoc.org/resources/links/zoos

Amateur Entomologists’ Society: Forensic Entomology http://www.amentsoc.org/insects/insects-and-man/forensic-entomology.html

How Stuff Works: What do bugs have to do with forensic science? http://science.howstuffworks.com/forensic-entomology2.htm

Smithsonian Channel Catching Killers: Insect Evidence http://www.smithsonianchannel.com/shows/catching-killers/insect-evidence/1003122/141561

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Your Hair Dye Just Might Sink Your Perfect Crime

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Hair and fibers and other trace evidence are often unknowingly left at the crime scene by the perpetrator. And those clever CSI folks can find these tidbits and analyze them. From hair, they can usually determine the species (human, cat, dog?), the color, the thickness and curliness, whether it was cut or yanked out, and other things.

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But what if the hair has been altered with coloring or various chemical treatments? No problem. In fact, such alterations could add another layer of individuality to hair found at a crime scene. Using Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), dyes and chemical treatments can be analyzed and such analysis can lead to the type of treatment and even the manufacturer of the product. This could prove to be critical evidence in connecting a suspect to a crime scene.

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With Modern Forensic Science Is the Perfect Crime Impossible?

Holmes

 

Probably. Likely. Not to mention that getting away with any crime requires a healthy dose of luck.

Professor Wesley Vernon of Huddersfield University agrees. To commit the perfect crime he says you must “get as far away as possible from the crime scene” and “pay someone to pay someone to pay someone to do it for you.”

And even these tricks are not likely to work. Bad luck being what bad luck is.

 

4 Leaf Clover

 
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Posted by on April 28, 2015 in Crime Scene, General Forensics

 

Crime and Science Radio: Forensic Science On Trial: The Honorable Donald Shelton On Forensic Science And The Courts

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Join Jan Burke and me as we welcome Judge Donald Shelton to Crime and Science Radio as he discusses the CSI Effect and many other legal issues.

BIO: Currently the Director of the Criminal Justice Program at the University of Michigan, the Honorable Donald E Shelton served as as the Chief Judge in the 22nd Judicial Court — the Washtenaw County Trial Court, where he had been a circuit court judge from 1990 until his retirement from the bench last year. In addition to his law degree, he has advanced degrees in Criminology, Criminal Justice and Judicial Studies, and has taught at the college level since 1971. He is the author of numerous books, articles, and studies on forensic science evidence and the judicial system — as well as other topics concerning criminal justice. Two of his most recent works are Forensic Science in Court: Challenges in the Twenty-first Century and Forensic Science Evidence: Can the Law Keep Up With Science?

LISTENhttp://www.blogtalkradio.com/suspensemagazine/2015/03/06/crime-and-science-radio-with-special-guest-the-honorable-donald-e-shelton

LINKS:

Links to Selected Works of Hon. Donald E. Shelton http://works.bepress.com/donald_shelton/

Selected works on Research Gate http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Donald_Shelton/publications

Curriculum Vitae of Hon. Donald E. Shelton http://works.bepress.com/donald_shelton/cv.pdf

“Forensic Science Evidence and Judicial Bias in Criminal Cases” The Judges’ Journal, American Bar Association 49.3 (2010): 18-24. http://works.bepress.com/donald_shelton/17/

“Juror Expectations for Scientific Evidence in Criminal Cases: Perceptions and Reality About the “CSI Effect” Myth” Thomas M. Cooley Law Review 27.1 (2010): 1-35. http://www.npr.org/documents/2011/feb/shelton-CSI-study.pdf

“Criminal Justice System Sees ‘CSI Effect’,” Tell Me More, National Public Radio, August 6, 2007, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=12525741

“The ‘CSI Effect': Does It Really Exist?” National Institute of Justice Website, http://www.nij.gov/journals/259/pages/csi-effect.aspx

“Washtenaw County Circuit Court Judge Donald Shelton will retire in September, ” The Ann Arbor News, April 08, 2014

http://www.mlive.com/news/ann-arbor/index.ssf/2014/04/chief_washtenaw_county_judge_w.html

Studying Juror Expectations for Scientific Evidence: A New Model for Looking at the CSI Myth

http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1357&context=ajacourtreview

An Indirect-Effects Model of Mediated Adjudication: The CSI Myth, the Tech Effect, and Metropolitan Jurors’ Expectations for Scientific Evidence

http://works.bepress.com/donald_shelton/15/

Forensic Science Evidence and Judicial Bias in Criminal Cases

http://works.bepress.com/donald_shelton/17/

 

Assessing The Crime Scene in 3D

Crime scene documentation is a critical step in criminal investigations. Knowing the spatial relationships between perpetrator, victim, and evidence items such as weapons, shoe prints, blood spatter, etc., as well as the physical layout of the scene, affords investigators a better look at who did what to whom. For many years, crime scene sketches, photos, and videos have proven useful in this regard.

Such techniques are discussed in detail in my book HOWDUNNIT: FORENSICS

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But wouldn’t a 3D holograph of the scene offer an even better understanding? Wouldn’t it be useful to “show” jurors how the crime actually went down? Looks like that might now be possible.

The process begins with laser mapping of the scene:

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As stated by Jeremy Bailenson of the Virtual Human Interaction Lab at Stanford University in California: ”Imagine you could transport the entire jury, the judge, the litigators – everybody – back to the crime scene during the crime.”

Yeah. Imagine that.

 

Q and A: Can DNA Be Used To Identify Multiple Assailants In a Three Decade Old Rape?

Q: Was it possible in 1969 (or even today for that matter) to determine if a woman found dead in sub-zero temperatures was raped by more than one assailant. If so, how could this be accomplished? Could a pathologist conclude that the woman was raped, as opposed to consensual intercourse, even if there is an absence of physical evidence such as bruising? What language would the pathologist employ when writing his conclusions?  Could evidence from 1969 be preserved (how would it be preserved?) and used today to identified suspects through DNA testing?

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A: DNA for testing comes from the genetic material found in the nuclei of the body’s cells. Essentially every cell in the body contains a nucleus. The notable exception is the Red Blood Cells (RBCs), which do not contain nuclei. But, White Blood Cells (WBCs) do. DNA testing of blood tests the DNA found in the nuclei of the WBCs.

Adequate DNA samples for testing have been gleaned from semen stains, bite marks, sweat, sputum, hair, and saliva. Even from the saliva left behind by licking a stamp or sealing an envelope. In the case of saliva from stamps or bites, the DNA tested comes from the cells that line the mouth (called buccal cells), which are constantly shed into the saliva. Hair does not contain cells and thus no DNA, but hair follicles do. A single hair follicle may yield enough DNA for testing.

As you can see, very small samples might be enough.

DNA is a fairly hardy molecule and survives time, freezing, drying, mixing with other materials, and many other adverse circumstances. It does not survive heating, however. Heat denatures, or destroys, the DNA strands. It is important to note that DNA testing does not require intact cells, merely intact DNA. This means that clotted blood, dried semen, and tissue fragments found under victims’ fingernails might yield enough DNA for conclusive testing.

The sub-zero temperatures in your scenario would serve to protect the DNA and would thus help the coroner by preserving better samples for his evaluation.

Yes, he would be able to determine that there had been two assailants, since each would have his own distinctive DNA pattern. The finding of two different DNA patterns in the semen sample obtained from the victim would prove this and when the suspects were apprehended, each could be matched to his own contribution to that sample. Mixing the semen would not alter this finding in any way since each DNA strand would be unchanged. It’s not like mixing blue paint with yellow paint to make green paint but rather like mixing a bunch of tiny blue beads with tiny yellow beads. From a distance, they might appear as though they had melted together to form a green mixture, but on close examination, each tiny bead would be seen to have remained intact and separate. DNA strands don’t “melt” into one another.

DNA can last for years, decades, even centuries. It has been found in Egyptian mummies, exhumed bodies, and samples stored from very old crimes. Recently, DNA evidence linked Gary Leon Ridgway to the famous string of prostitute murders know as the Green River Murders in Washington State. The DNA evidence connected him to murders that occurred in the early 1980s. This was possible because the DNA was handled and stored properly. Typically, the sample is dried and placed in a non-reactive container such as a glass vial.

The problem of determining if a rape occurred is a question for the jury. Rape is not a medical term, but rather a legal term. The coroner could determine if penetration occurred and if semen was present. If he found trauma to the vagina or to other body parts that might suggest the victim was struck or restrained, he might conclude that in his opinion the intercourse was not consensual. Still, it would require a judge or a jury to determine whether a rape occurred or not.

Published in Suspense Magazine December, 2014

 

Murder Solved By Clever DNA Testing of an Old Stamp

DNA PROFILE

DNA PROFILE

Here is an amazing and convoluted story that involves good police work and clever DNA testing, including the use of old and very small samples and familial DNA techniques (instrumental in identifying the serial killer known as the Grim Sleeper). More proof that criminals can run but they can’t hide. Not for long anyway.

 
 
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