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Criminal Mischief: Episode #32: Toxicology Part 1

Criminal Mischief: Episode #32: Toxicology Part 1

 

LISTEN: https://soundcloud.com/authorsontheair/episode-32-toxicology-part-1

PAST SHOWS: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief.html

SHOW NOTES:

From HOWDUNNIT: FORENSICS

WHAT IS A POISON? 

The terms poison, toxin, and drug are simply different ways of saying the same thing. Though you might think that a poison kills, a toxin harms, and a drug cures, these terms can be used almost interchangeably. The reason is that what can cure can also harm, and what can harm can kill. 

Anything and everything can be a poison. The basic definition of a poison is any substance that, if taken in sufficient quantities, causes a harmful or deadly reaction. The key here is the phrase “sufficient quantities.” 

The toxicity of any substance depends on how much enters the body and over what time period it does so. For example, you probably know that arsenic is a poison, but did you know that you likely have arsenic in your body right now? If you’re a smoker, you have more than a little bit. Same with mercury and cyanide. These substances are in the environment—you can’t avoid them. But they are in such small quantities that they cause no real harm. However, take enough of any of them and they become deadly.

The same can be said for the medications your doctor gives you to treat medical problems. Consider the heart drug digitalis, which comes from the foxglove plant and has been used for over a hundred years to treat heart failure and many types of abnormal heart rhythms. It is also a deadly poison. Too much can lead to nausea, vomiting, and death from dangerous changes in the rhythm of the heart. It’s ironic that it can treat some abnormal heart rhythms while at the same time can cause other more deadly rhythms. It’s all in the dosage. The right dose is medication; the wrong dose is poison. 

TOXICOLOGICAL TESTING

Toxicology is a marriage of chemistry and physiology, since it deals with chemical substances (chemistry) and how these substances alter or harm living organisms (physiology), particularly humans. 

A forensic toxicologist deals with the legal aspects of toxicology. His job is to find and analyze toxic substances in biological materials taken from both the living and the dead, and to determine the physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects on the individual in question. For example, he might be asked to assess the state of inebriation of an automobile accident victim or to determine if someone died from a poison or if the presence of a drug contributed to the victim’s death. This is often more difficult than it sounds. 

When the toxicologist investigates a possible poisoning death, he must answer three basic questions: 

Was the death due to a poison?

What was the poison used?

Was the intake of the poison accidental, suicidal, or homicidal? 

During his analysis, the modern forensic toxicologist sometimes searches for the poison itself, while other times he searches for the poison’s breakdown products. This brings up the concept of biotransformation, which is the conversion or transformation of a chemical into another chemical by the body. We also call this metabolism and the new product produced a metabolite. This process is simply the body destroying or breaking down chemicals and excreting them from the body. This is why you must take most medications each day. The medication is designed to treat some medical problem, and indeed it may do that. But, to the body, the drug is also a foreign toxin and as such must be metabolized and excreted. So, you have to take another dose day after day to keep the blood level of the medication in the therapeutic level. 

The metabolism of a drug or toxin typically deactivates the chemical and prepares it for elimination from the body, usually by way of the kidneys. For example, many chemicals are not soluble in water, which means they aren’t soluble in urine, either. The body gets around this by metabolizing (biotransforming) the chemical in such a way that it becomes a new chemical (metabolite) that is water soluble. The metabolite can then be filtered through the kidney, into the urine, and out of the body.

Most metabolites are inactive in that they possess no biological activity and are inert as far as the body is concerned. Other metabolites are active and may have biological properties that are weaker or stronger than the original compound. They may even behave quite differently from the parent compound. For example, cocaine is metabolized into three metabolites: nor-cocaine, which possesses active properties, and benzoylecgonine and methylecgonine, which are inert. 

Another example is heroin, which is made from morphine. When heroin is injected into the bloodstream it is immediately converted back into morphine— the chemical that gives the user the “high.” 

Since both cocaine and heroin are metabolized to new compounds very quickly, testing for either would be useless. Instead, the toxicologist tests for the presence of cocaine or heroin by searching for their metabolites. Finding them proves that the parent drug was present. 

One of the reasons poisoning has been such a popular means for homicide for so many years is that most poisons cause no visible changes in the body, either in the living person or at autopsy. In the days before toxicology labs existed, the poisoner “got away with it” more often than not. After all, if there were no obvious reason for the death, it must have been natural. Since the true cause of death could not be determined, no one could be held responsible. 

Of course, some toxins do leave behind visible signs, many of which have been known for years. Corrosive poisons such as acids and lye cause severe damage to the mouth, esophagus, and stomach if they are ingested. Poisonous mushrooms and chlorinated hydrocarbons such a carbon tetrachloride, which for years was used in many carpet cleaners, may cause fatty degeneration of the liver. Cyanide and carbon monoxide cause a cherry-red appearance to the blood and tissues and lead to pinkish lividity. Metallic poisons such as arsenic, mercury, and lead cause characteristic changes in the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. 

But this isn’t the norm. Most poisons work their mischief within the cells of the body and leave behind no visible footprints. This means the ME does not often see visible evidence of toxins at autopsy or on the microscopic slides he prepares from the body’s tissues. Instead he collects fluids and tissues from the body and these are analyzed for the presence or absence of toxins by the toxicologist. 

SAMPLE COLLECTION 

Since toxins rarely leave behind visible clues, the ME and the toxicologist must perform specialized tests to reveal their presence. These examinations require various body fluids and tissues, and which ones are used depends on the particular drug in question and the situation under which it is tested. The goal of testing is to establish whether a particular drug is the cause of death, or a contributing factor in the death, or that it played no role at all.

The best places to obtain samples for testing are the locations where the chemicals entered the body, where they concentrate within the body, and along the routes of elimination. This means that blood, stomach contents, and the tissues around injection sites may possess high concentrations of the drug. Analysis of liver, brain, and other tissues may reveal where the drug or its metabolites have accumulated. Finally, urine testing may indicate where the drug and its metabolites are concentrated for final elimination. 

During an autopsy, blood, urine, stomach contents, bile, vitreous eye fluid, and tissue samples from the liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain are obtained. If an inhaled toxin is suspected, lung tissue is also taken, and if a chronic heavy metal (arsenic, lead, etc.) poisoning is a consideration, hair samples are taken (the reason is discussed later in this chapter). 

It is important that the samples be collected before embalming, since this procedure can interfere with subsequent testing or, as in the case of cyanide, completely destroy the toxin. Also, since embalming fluids may contain methanol and other alcohols, accurate alcohol testing is difficult if not impossible after this procedure.

Let’s look at the most common fluids and tissues obtained by the ME or toxicologist.

BLOOD: Blood is by far the toxicologist’s most useful substance since, with modern toxicological techniques, most drugs and their major metabolites can be found in the blood. 

Blood is easily sampled from the living with a simple venipuncture (using a needle to draw blood from a vein, usually in the arm). During an autopsy, blood is typically obtained from several areas. The aorta (the main artery that carries blood out of the heart and to the body), both sides of the heart, and the femoral artery (in the groin area) are common locations. The samples are then placed into glass tubes and sent to the laboratory for testing. If the blood is to be analyzed for volatile chemicals, a sample is placed in a Teflon-lined screw-cap tube. Rubber stoppers should be avoided since they can react with the gases or may also allow them to escape. 

The toxicologist not only determines if the toxin is present, but also attempts to assess its level in the body. This is important since low levels may be of no consequence, higher doses may have toxic effects and may have contributed to the person’s actions or played a role in his death, and even higher levels may have been the actual cause of death. Blood is most often the best substance for this assessment. 

Concentrations of medicines and drugs within the blood correlate well with levels of intoxication as well as with levels that are potentially lethal. Bioavailability is the amount of the drug that is available for biological activity. Since drugs work on the cellular level, bioavailability means the concentration of the drug that reaches the cells of the body. For most chemicals, the blood level correlates with the cellular level. 

For example, the level of alcohol in the blood correlates extremely well with a person’s degree of intoxication, and the lethal level of alcohol in the blood is well known. This knowledge means that the ME can use a blood alcohol level to accurately estimate a person’s degree of intoxication in an automobile accident or whether the fraternity boy died from his binge drinking or from some other cause. 

Or let’s say that an individual takes a handful of sedative (sleeping) pills in a suicide attempt. In order for the pills to “work” they must be digested, absorbed into the bloodstream, and carried to the cells of the brain, where the concentration of the drug in the brain cells determines the degree of “poison- ing.” And since the amount of the drug in the blood is an accurate reflection of the amount within the brain cells, testing the blood is like testing the cells. 

But, if absorption of the pills from the stomach doesn’t occur, the person will have no effect from the drug. The amount of the drug present in the stomach is irrelevant since it is not available to the brain cells. So, a victim found with undigested pills in his stomach and a very low blood level of the drug did not die from a drug overdose and must have died from something else. 

URINE: Easily sampled with a cup and a trip to the restroom, urine testing is a staple of workplace drug testing. It is also useful at autopsy, where it is re- moved by way of a needle inserted into the bladder. Because the kidneys are one of the body’s major drug and toxin elimination routes, toxins are often found in greater concentrations in the urine than in the blood. However, one problem is that the correlation between urine concentration and drug effects in the body is often poor at best. All the urine level can tell the ME is that the drug had been in the blood at some earlier time. It can’t tell him if the drug was exerting any effect on the individual at the time of its collection, or in the case of a corpse, the time of death. 

Also, estimating blood concentrations from urine concentrations is impossible. The concentration of any drug in the urine depends on how much urine is produced. If the person has ingested a great deal of water, the urine and any chemicals it contains will be more diluted (watered down) than if the person is “dry.” In addition, alcohol and drugs known as diuretics increase urine volume and decrease the urine concentration of any drugs or metabolites present. Many athletes use diuretics in an attempt to mask or dilute performance-enhancing drugs. 

STOMACH CONTENTS: The stomach contents are removed from survivors of drug ingestions by way of a gastric tube, which is typically passed through the nose and into the stomach. The contents are then lavaged (washed) from the stomach and tested for the presence of drugs or poisons. 

At autopsy, the stomach contents are similarly tested. Obtaining the stomach contents in any case where poison or drug ingestion is suspected is critical. However, as mentioned earlier, the concentration of any drug in the stomach does not correlate with its blood level and thus its effects on the person. It does, however, show that the drug was ingested and in what quantity. 

LIVER: The liver is the center of most drug and toxin metabolism. Testing the liver tissue and the bile it produces can often reveal the drug or its metabolites. Many drugs, particularly opiates, tend to concentrate in the liver and the bile, so they can often be found in these tissues when the blood shows no traces. Where the liver might reflect levels of a drug during the hours before death, the bile may indicate what drugs were in the system over the past three to four days. Neither is very accurate, however. 

VITREOUS HUMOR: The vitreous humor is the liquid within the eyeball. It is fairly resistance to putrefaction (decay) and in severely decomposed corpses it may be the only remaining fluid. Testing may uncover the presence of certain drugs. 

The vitreous humor is an aqueous (water-like) fluid, which means that chemicals that are water soluble will dissolve in it. It also maintains equilibrium with the blood, so that any water-soluble chemical in the blood will also be found in the vitreous. The important thing is that the level in the vitreous lags behind that of the blood by about one to two hours. This means that test- ing the vitreous will reflect the concentration of the toxin in the blood one to two hours earlier. 

HAIR: Hair absorbs certain heavy metal (arsenic, lead, and others) toxins and some other drugs. It has the unique ability to give an intoxication timeline for many of these substances. This will be discussed in greater detail later in this chapter. 

INSECTS: In cases where the body is severely decomposed and insects have been feeding on the corpse, the maggots can be tested for drugs. And since some insects tend to concentrate certain drugs in their tissues, they may supply information that the drug was at least present in the victim. 

TOXICOLOGY AND THE CAUSE AND MANNER OF DEATH 

In the remote past, it was very difficult to determine why someone died, and virtually impossible to ascertain whether a poison was involved. Though modern toxicological techniques have changed things greatly, determining that poisoning was the cause of death remains one of the most difficult tasks facing the forensic toxicologist. 

The ultimate responsibility for determining the cause and manner of death lies with the ME or the coroner. To do this he will rely on the circumstances of the death, the crime scene reconstruction, the autopsy findings, and the laboratory results, including the toxicology findings. 

In cases where a potentially deadly poison is involved, the toxicologist must uncover the toxin, determine its concentration within the victim, and then give his opinion as to whether this level of this drug was likely lethal. To accomplish this he must consider a number of factors.

The lethal level for many drugs is extremely variable from person to per- son. Age, sex, body size and weight, the presence of other drugs or medications, the state of overall health, and the presence of other diseases impact a given person’s tolerance to some drugs. 

For example, a frequent and heavy drinker can tolerate much higher blood alcohol levels than could someone who never drank. A heavy drinker might appear completely sober at a level that would render the normal person unconscious. 

Similarly, hardcore heroin addicts routinely inject doses of heroin and attain drug blood levels that would kill the average person in a matter of minutes. 

In addition, some drugs are more dangerous to individuals with certain medical problems. The use of amphetamines poses a much greater risk for someone with heart disease or high blood pressure than it would for someone in good health. In this circumstance, a blood level of amphetamines that would not harm the average person could prove lethal for a person with these diseases. 

So, it’s not straightforward. When the ME attempts to determine the cause of death in the presence of drugs or toxins, he must consider all these factors. In the absence of other possible causes of death, and with the presence of significant levels of a potentially harmful drug, he might conclude the drug was the proximate cause of death or at least a contributing factor. 

Remember that the manners of death are natural, accidental, suicidal, homicidal, and the extra classification of undetermined. Drugs and poisons can be the direct cause or at least a contributing factor in any of these. 

NATURAL: A person can die of natural causes even if drugs are involved in the mechanism of death. What if a man with significant coronary artery disease (CAD) took an amphetamine or snorted a few lines of cocaine? Coronary artery disease is a very common disease in which the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart are plugged with cholesterol plaque. 

Amphetamines and cocaine are drugs that increase the heart rate and the blood pressure, both of which increase the need for blood supply to the harder working heart muscle. In addition, these drugs can cause the coronary arteries to spasm (squeeze shut), which greatly decreases the blood supply to the heart muscle. Basically, the supply of blood is reduced at a time when the need is increased, so that the person loses both sides of the supply and demand equation. The victim could suffer a heart attack (actual death of a portion of the heart muscle due to lack of adequate blood supply) or a cardiac arrhythmia (a dangerous change in heart rhythm). Either of these could kill the victim. The cause of death would be a heart attack or a cardiac arrhythmia, events that he would be prone to due to his CAD. But, the amphetamine or cocaine would be a contributory factor. This circumstance is common.

When the ME and the toxicologist confront this situation, they must assess the extent of the victim’s heart disease, the amount of the drug in the body, and whether a heart attack actually occurred. If the amount of drug is low and the victim had severely diseased coronary arteries, they might conclude that the death was natural and that the drug was only a minor contributing factor. On the other hand, if his CAD was mild and the level of drug in his body was high, they might favor an accidental drug death. 

But, what if the victim intentionally took a large amount of cocaine, or what if the amphetamines were given to him without his knowledge? The manner of death would then be a suicide or a homicide, respectively. The important point is that the autopsy and lab results would be the same in each circumstance. The ME would need to rely on witness statements and the results of the police investigation to sort this out. And even with this information, the picture might simply be too muddy for the ME to determine the manner of death, and it might be classified as undetermined. 

ACCIDENTAL: Most accidental poisonings occur at home and often involve children. Curious by nature, children will eat or drink almost anything: prescription drugs, pesticides, household cleaners, paint thinners, weed killers, snail bait, you name it. In adults, accidental poisoning most often occurs because some product is mislabeled, usually because it has been placed in a container other than its original one. This may be in the form of medications dumped into another bottle, some toxic liquid placed in an empty liquor bottle, or the white powders of cyanide or arsenic stored in a container where they could be confused with sugar or salt. 

In other situations, the death might be the result of a dosage miscalculation. Addicts often miscalculate the amount of heroin or amphetamine they are taking and die from this error. The fact that street drugs have poor quality control only adds to this problem. How much heroin is actually in the bag the addict just bought? It may be less or many times more than the bag he purchased yesterday. If the latter is the case and he injects the same dose as he did yesterday, he could easily die from an overdose. 

Similarly, some people believe that if one dose of a drug is good, then two must be better. This is a dangerous assumption. Digitalis is a common cardiac medication. Sometimes a patient will decide on his own to double his dose. All is well for a couple of weeks, but as the medicine accumulates within his body, he becomes ill and can die. 

Another factor in accidental drug deaths is the mixing of drugs. Alcohol taken with a sedative is notorious for causing death. Addicts often mix cocaine with amphetamines, or heroin with tranquilizers, or just about any combination imaginable, often with tragic results. 

SUICIDAL: Drugs are a commonly involved in suicides. Sedatives or sleeping 

pills, narcotics, alcohol, and carbon monoxide (see Chapter Eight: Asphyxia, “Toxic Gases”) are commonly used. Often the victim takes multiple drugs, basically whatever is in the medicine cabinet. This presents a difficult problem for the toxicologist. He must analyze the stomach contents, blood, urine, and tissues, and hopefully determine the level of each drug and assess the contribution of each to the victim’s death. He may find that one particularly toxic drug was present in large amounts and that it was the cause of death. Or he might find that a certain combination of drugs was the cause. 

The ME uses these findings in conjunction with information from the autopsy and from investigating officers to assess the manner of death. The find- ing of multiple drugs in the victim’s system doesn’t necessarily mean that he took them on purpose. It could have been an accidental overdose driven by the need for relief of physical or psychological pain, or someone else could have surreptitiously slipped the drugs into his food or drink, which would be a homicide.

HOMICIDAL: Though homicidal poisoning was common from antiquity to the twentieth century, it is uncommon today. 

As with accidental and suicidal poisonings, homicidal poisonings occur most often at home. This means that the killer must possess knowledge of the victim’s habits and have access to his food, drink, and medications. This knowledge is critical in the homicidal administration of a toxin. It is also important in solving the crime. When the toxicologist determines that the victim was poisoned, the police focus on anyone who had access to the victim. 

To dig deeper into this subject grab a copy of either:

 

FORENSICS FOR DUMMIES: http://www.dplylemd.com/book-details/forensics-for-dummies.html

HOWDUNNIT: FORENSICS: http://www.dplylemd.com/book-details/howdunnit-forensics.html

 

Criminal Mischief on Hiatus Through the Holidays

Criminal Mischief on Hiatus Through the Holidays

 

Criminal Mischief: The Art and Science of Crime Fiction will take a break over the holidays but will be back in January with a three-part series on forensic toxicology. In the meantime, catch up on the 31 past shows:

http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief.html

Or spend the holidays improving your forensic science knowledge:

 

FORENSICS FOR DUMMIES

http://www.dplylemd.com/book-details/forensics-for-dummies.html

 

HOWDUNNIT:FORENSICS

http://www.dplylemd.com/book-details/howdunnit-forensics.html

 

 

Criminal Mischief: Episode #31: Body Disposal Isn’t Easy

Criminal Mischief: Episode #31: Body Disposal Isn’t Easy

LISTEN: https://soundcloud.com/authorsontheair/episode-31-body-disposal-isnt-easy

PAST SHOWS: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief.html

SHOW NOTES: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief-notes/31-body-disposal.html

Details/Order: http://www.dplylemd.com/book-details/howdunnit-forensics.html

From HOWDUNNIT:FORENSICS:

GETTING RID OF THE BODY 

Some criminals attempt to destroy corpses, the primary pieces of evidence in homicides. They think that if the police never find the body, they can’t be convicted. This isn’t true, since convictions have in many cases been obtained when no body is found. And destroying a body is no easy task. 

Fire seems to be the favorite tool for this effort. Fortunately, this is essentially never successful. Short of a crematorium, it is nearly impossible to create a fire that burns hot enough or long enough to destroy a human corpse. Cremation uses temperatures of around 1,500oF for two hours or more and still bone fragments and teeth survive. A torched building would rarely reach these temperatures and would not burn for this long. The body inside may be severely charred on the surface, but the inner tissues and internal organs are often very well preserved. 

Another favorite is quicklime. Murderers use this because they have seen it in the movies and because they don’t typically have degrees in chemistry. If they did, they might think twice about this one. Not that quicklime won’t destroy a corpse; it just takes a long time and a lot of the chemical. Most killers who use this method simply dump some on the corpse and bury it, thinking the lime will do its work and nothing will remain. Quicklime is calcium oxide. When it contacts water, as it often does in burial sites, it reacts with the water to make calcium hydroxide, also known as slaked lime. This corrosive material may damage the corpse, but the heat produced from this activity will kill many of the putrefying bacteria and dehydrate the body. This conspires to prevent decay and promote mummification. Thus, the use of quicklime may actually help preserve the body. 

Acids are also used in this regard, and once again the criminal hopes the acid will completely dissolve the body. Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer tried this with little success. Indeed, powerful acids such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and
chlorosulfuric acid (HClSO3) can destroy a corpse, bones and all. If enough acid is used over a sufficient period of time, that is. But this is not only difficult but also extremely hazardous. The acids will indeed destroy the corpse, but they will also “eat” the tub the body is in and chew up the plumbing. Acid fumes will peel the wallpaper and burn the perpetrator’s skin, eyes, and lungs. 

FORENSIC CASE FILES: THE ACID BATH MURDERER 

John George Haigh came to the English public’s attention in the 1940s when he confessed to not only multiple murders, but also to drinking his victims’ blood and destroying their corpses with acid. He seemed to favor sulfuric acid, which he kept in a vat in his workshop. He took the victims’ money and, through forgery, their property and businesses, and then basically laughed at the police as he admitted to the killings, believing they could not prosecute him without a corpse. He was wrong. He was convicted through forensic evidence and was hanged at Wandsworth Prison on August 10, 1949. 

So, whether it’s Mother Nature or the work of the perpetrator, something almost always remains for the ME and the other forensic scientist to work with. It may be an intact body, a partially destroyed corpse, or a single bone, but it will give them something to use in identification. Let’s take a look at how they do this—first with a body and then with only skeletal remains

BODY LOCATION 

With the exception of some photographic comparisons, all these forensic identification techniques require a corpse or skeletal remains. No body, nothing to work with. Often a discovered body is what instigates this identification process. But sometimes, investigators know a homicide has occurred, or has likely occurred, but they can’t find the corpse. The Laci Peterson case is an example. When Laci, who was eight months pregnant at the time, went missing on Christmas Eve 2002, in Modesto, California, it was not long before it became obvious that she had been murdered. Authorities launched a search of her neighborhood and the bay where her husband, Scott, had been fishing. In April 2003, the bodies of Laci and her unborn son Conner washed up on shore in San Francisco Bay. Scott Peterson was later convicted of the double murder. 

In homicides, finding and examining the corpse is critical. Searchers use a number of low- and high-tech location methods. All evidence is used to narrow the search area, including the victim’s work and leisure habits and witness statements. The victim may work several miles from home, so searching along this route would be undertaken. Maybe he frequently ran or walked in a nearby wooded area. Or maybe the suspect’s vehicle was spotted or some of the victim’s clothing was found in a remote area. These bits of information can greatly focus the search. 

One basic rule is to “look downhill” for a burial site. Let’s say it is believed that the body in question was buried near a remote roadway. In the area, the terrain rises above the road on one side and falls away on the other. Search downhill. Why? It is much easier to carry a body downhill than up. It’s just that simple. 

Once the area of search has been defined, a systematic approach to cover- ing the area should be followed. Freshly turned dirt, trenches, elevations or depressions in the terrain may be helpful. Fresh graves tend to be elevated above the surrounding area, while older ones may be depressed. This is due to settling of the soil, decay of the body, and collapse of the skeleton. Interestingly, the depth of the depression is greater if the body is deeply buried. This is likely due to the larger amount of turned dirt, which is subject to a greater degree of settling. Another factor could be that in deeper graves, the increased weight of the dirt over the corpse causes earlier and more complete skeletal collapse. 

Tracking dogs, if provided with an article of the victim’s clothing, may be able to follow a scent trail to the burial site. Specially trained cadaver dogs search for the scent of decaying flesh. They can often locate bodies in shallow graves or in water. Deeper graves may present problems.

Another important clue may come from changes in the vegetation over the gravesite. The turning of the soil in the digging process and the presence of the body change the soil conditions in the area over the grave. Changes in compaction, moisture, aeration, and temperature may attract plant species that differ from those around the grave. Or, the plants typical for the area may be present but the changed soil conditions may increase the thickness and richness of their growth. This may be visible, particularly from the air. 

Aerial reconnaissance and photography can be coupled with thermal imaging. Freshly turned dirt loses heat faster than normally compacted soil; it appears “colder” by such a device. Alternatively, a decaying body releases heat, which may reveal a measurable difference when compared to the surrounding area. So, the thermal images are inspected for either cold or warm spots, and these areas are then subjected to a more aggressive search. 

If a suspect area such as a mound or depression is found, special devices that locate sources of heat and nitrogen, both byproducts of the decay process, or that measure changes in the physical properties of the soil, may be employed. Ground-penetrating radar can “see” into the ground and often locate a buried body. Measurement of the electrical conductivity may prove helpful— a buried body often adds moisture to the soil, and the moisture increases the soil’s electrical conductivity. Two metal probes are placed in the soil, and an electrical current is passed between them and measured. Changes in this current may indicate where the body is buried. 

Magnetic devices may also be employed. A simple metal detector may locate the victim’s jewelry or belt buckle. 

A special device called a magnetometer, which measures the magnetic properties of soil, can also be helpful. Soil contains small amounts of iron, so it possesses a low level of magnetic reaction. Since the area where the body is buried has proportionally less soil (the corpse takes up space), it will exhibit a lower level of magnetic reactivity. The magnetometer is passed above the soil and locates any areas that have low magnetic reactivity. 

Body Encased in Concrete: https://www.breitbart.com/crime/2019/10/17/police-find-missing-womans-body-encased-concrete-arrest-two-suspects/

Body in Concrete in Plastic Storage Container: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/10/13/14409189-murder-victim-found-entombed-in-concrete-was-former-fla-journalist

Acid in Tub: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/french-students-dissolve-body-in-acid-after-killing-girl-in-breaking-bad-murder-plot-10447943.html

Body Beneath Another Corpse: https://www.newser.com/story/240700/husband-hid-wifes-body-under-grave-of-wwii-veteran.html

Body Parts in Trash Bags: https://6abc.com/archive/6880388/

Cooked Spouse: https://latimesblogs.latimes.com/lanow/2012/09/la-chef-told-police-he-slow-cooked-his-wife-for-days.html

Laci Petersen in the San Francisco Bay: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scott_Peterson

Corpse in Freezer in Truck: https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1994-07-18-mn-17076-story.html

And

https://murderpedia.org/male.F/f/famalaro-john.htm

The Science of Finding Buried Bodies: http://theconversation.com/the-science-of-finding-buried-bodies-77803

The Science of Finding Dead Bodies: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4515430/Researchers-reveal-track-corpse.html

 

Criminal Mischief: Episode #25: A Stroll Through Forensic Science History

 

Criminal Mischief: Episode #25: A Stroll Through Forensic Science History

 

 

LISTEN:https://soundcloud.com/authorsontheair/forensicsciencehistory

PAST SHOWS: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief.html

SHOW NOTES: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief-notes/25-a-stroll-through-forensi.html

 

FORENSIC SCIENCE TIMELINE 

Prehistory: Early cave artists and pot makers “sign” their works with a paint or impressed finger or thumbprint.

1000 b.c.: Chinese use fingerprints to “sign” legal documents.

3rd century BC.: Erasistratus (c. 304–250 b.c.) and Herophilus (c. 335–280 b.c.) perform the first autopsies in Alexandria.

2nd century AD.: Galen (131–200 a.d.), physician to Roman gladiators, dissects both animal and humans to search for the causes of disease.

c. 1000: Roman attorney Quintilian shows that a bloody handprint was intended to frame a blind man for his mother’s murder.

1194: King Richard Plantagenet (1157–1199) officially creates the position of coroner.

1200s: First forensic autopsies are done at the University of Bologna.

1247: Sung Tz’u publishes Hsi Yuan Lu (The Washing Away of Wrongs), the first forensic text.

c. 1348–1350: Pope Clement VI(1291–1352) orders autopsies on victims of the Black Death to hopefully find a cause for the plague.

Late 1400s: Medical schools are established in Padua and Bologna.

1500s: Ambroise Paré (1510–1590) writes extensively on the anatomy of war and homicidal wounds.

1642: University of Leipzig offers the first courses in forensic medicine.

1683: Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) employs a microscope to first see living bacteria, which he calls animalcules.

Late 1600s: Giovanni Morgagni (1682–1771) first correlates autopsy findings to various diseases.

1685: Marcello Malpighi first recognizes fingerprint patterns and uses the terms loops and whorls.

1775: Paul Revere recognizes dentures he had made for his friend Dr. Joseph Warren and thus identifies the doctor’s body in a mass grave at Bunker Hill.

1775: Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786) develops the first test for arsenic.

1784: In what is perhaps the first ballistic comparison, John Toms is convicted of murder based on the match of paper wadding removed from the victim’s wound with paper found in Tom’s pocket.

1787: Johann Metzger develops a method for isolating arsenic.

c. 1800: Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828) develops the field of phrenology.

1806: Valentine Rose recovers arsenic from a human body.

1813: Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila (1787–1853) publishes Traité des poisons (Treatise on Poison), the first toxicology textbook. 

1821: Sevillas isolates arsenic from human stomach contents and urine, giving birth to the field of forensic toxicology.

1823: Johannes Purkinje (1787–1869) devises the first crude fingerprint classification system.

1835: Henry Goddard (1866–1957) matches two bullets to show they came from the same bullet mould.

1836: Alfred Swaine Taylor (1806–1880) develops first test for arsenic in human tissue.

1836: James Marsh (1794–1846) develops a sensitive test for arsenic (Marsh test).

1853: Ludwig Teichmann (1823–1895) develops the hematin test to test blood for the presence of the characteristic rhomboid crystals.

1858: In Bengal, India, Sir William Herschel (1833–1917) requires natives sign contracts with a hand imprint and shows that fingerprints did not change over a fifty-year period.

1862: Izaak van Deen (1804–1869) develops the guaiac test for blood.

1863: Christian Friedrich Schönbein (1799–1868) develops the hydrogen peroxide test for blood.

1868: Friedrich Miescher (1844–1895) discovers DNA.

1875: Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen (1845–1923) discovers X-rays.

1876: Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909) publishes The Criminal Man, which states that criminals can be identified and classified by their physical characteristics.

1877: Medical examiner system is established in Massachusetts.

1880: Henry Faulds (1843–1930) shows that powder dusting will expose latent fingerprints.

1882: Alphonse Bertillon (1853–1914) develops his anthropometric identification system.

1883: Mark Twain (1835–1910) employs fingerprint identification in his books Life on the Mississippi and The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson (1893– 1894).

1887: In Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s first Sherlock Holmes novel, A Study in Scarlet, Holmes develops a chemical to determine whether a stain was blood or not—something that had not yet been done in a real-life investigation.

1889: Alexandre Lacassagne (1843–1924) shows that marks on bullets could be matched to those within a rifled gun barrel.

1892: Sir Francis Galton (1822–1911) publishes his classic textbook Finger Prints. 

1892: In Argentina, Juan Vucetich (1858–1925) devises a usable fingerprint classification system. 

1892: In Argentina, Francisca Rojas becomes the first person charged with a crime on fingerprint evidence.

1898: Paul Jeserich (1854–1927) uses a microscope for ballistic comparison. 

1899: Sir Edward Richard Henry (1850–1931) devises a fingerprint classification system that is the basis for those used in Britain and America today.

1901: Karl Landsteiner (1868–1943) delineates the ABO blood typing system. 

1901: Paul Uhlenhuth (1870–1957) devises a method to distinguish between human and animal blood. 

1901: Sir Edward Richard Henry becomes head of Scotland Yard and adopts a fingerprint identification system in place of anthropometry. 

1902: Harry Jackson becomes the first person in England to be convicted by fingerprint evidence. 

1903: Will and William West Case–effectively ended the Bertillion System in favor of fingerprints for identification

1910: Edmund Locard (1877–1966) opens the first forensic laboratory in Lyon, France. 

1910: Thomas Jennings becomes the first U.S. citizen convicted of a crime by use of fingerprints.

1915: Leone Lattes (1887–1954) develops a method for ABO typing dried bloodstains.

1920: The Sacco and Vanzetti case brings ballistics to the public’s attention. The case highlights the value of the newly developed comparison microscope.

1923: Los Angeles Police Chief August Vollmer (1876–1955) establishes the first forensic laboratory. 

1929: The ballistic analyses used to solve the famous St. Valentine’s Day Massacre in Chicago lead to the establishment of the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory (SCDL), the first independent crime lab, at Northwestern University.

1932: FBI’s forensic laboratory is established.

1953: James Watson (1928– ), Francis Crick (1916–2004), and Maurice Wilkins (1916–2004) identify DNA’s double-helical structure. 

1954: Indiana State Police Captain R.F. Borkenstein develops the breathalyzer. 

1971: William Bass establishes the Body Farm at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville.

1974: Detection of gunshot residue by SEM/EDS is developed. 

1977: FBI institutes the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS). 

1984: Sir Alec Jeffreys (1950– ) develops the DNA “fingerprint” technique.

1987: In England, Colin Pitchfork becomes the first criminal identified by the use of DNA.

1987: First United States use of DNA for a conviction in the Florida case of Tommy Lee Andrews.

1990: The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is established.

1992: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is introduced.

1994: The DNA analysis of short tandem repeats (STRs) is introduced. 

1996: Mitochondrial DNA is first admitted into a U.S. court in Tennessee v. Ware. 

1998: The National DNA Index System (NDIS) becomes operational.

Since then:

Touch DNA

Familial DNA

Phenotypic DNA

 

Criminal Mischief: Episode #22: Common Medical Errors in Fiction

Criminal Mischief: Episode #22: Common Medical Errors in Fiction

LISTEN: https://soundcloud.com/authorsontheair/criminal-mischief-episode-22-common-medical-errors-in-fiction

PAST SHOWS: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief.html

SHOW NOTES: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief-notes/22-comon-medical-errors-in.html

Too often, fiction writers commit medical malpractice in their stories. Unfortunately, these mistakes can sink an otherwise well-written story. The ones I repetitively see include:

Bang, Bang, You’re Dead: Not so fast. No one dies instantly. Well, almost no one. Instant death can occur with heart attacks, strokes, extremely abnormal heart rhythms, cyanide, and a few other “metabolic” poisons. But trauma, such as gunshot wounds (GSWs) and blows to the head, rarely cause sudden death. Yet, how often has a single shot felled a villain? Bang, dead. For that to occur, the bullet would have to severely damage the brain, the heart, or the cervical (neck) portion of the spinal cord. A shot to the chest or abdomen leads to a lot of screaming and moaning, but death comes from bleeding and that takes time. Sometimes, a long time.

Ask any emergency physician or nurse. GSW victims reach the ER with multiple holes in their bodies and survive all the time. This is particularly true if it’s Friday night (we called it the Friday Night Knife and Gun Club), during a full moon (yes, it’s true, a full moon changes everything), or if the victim is drunk. You can’t kill a drunk. That’s a medical fact. They survive everything from car wrecks to gunshots to falling off tall buildings. The family van they hit head-on will have no survivors, but the drunk will walk away with minor scratches, if that.

Sleeping Beauty: I call this the “Hollywood Death.” Calm, peaceful, and not a hair out of place. As if simply asleep. Blood? Almost never. Trauma? None in sight. The deceased is nicely dressed, stretched out on a wrinkle-free bed, make-up perfect, and with a slight flutter of the eyelids if you look closely. Real dead folks are not so attractive. I don’t care what they looked like during life, in death, they are pale, waxy, and gray. Their eyes do not flutter and they do not look relaxed and peaceful. They look dead. And feel cold. It’s amazing how quickly after death the body becomes cold to the touch. It has to do with the loss of blood flow to the skin after the heart stops. No warm blood, no warmth to the touch.

Sleeping Beauty also doesn’t bleed. You know this one. The hero detective arrives at a murder scene a half hour after the deed to see blood oozing from the corpse’s mouth or from the GSW to the chest. Tilt! Dead folks don’t bleed. You see, when you die, your heart stops and the blood no longer circulates. It clots. Stagnant or clotted blood does not move. It does not gush or ooze or gurgle or flow or trickle from the body. 

Trauma? What Trauma?: You’ve seen and read this a million times. The hero socks the bad guy’s henchmen in the jaw. He goes down and is apparently written out of the script since we never hear from him again. It’s always the henchmen, because the antagonist, like most people, requires a few solid blows to go down. Think about a boxing match. Two guys that are trained to inflict damage and even they have trouble knocking each other out. And when they do, the one on his back is up in a couple of minutes, claiming the other guy caught him with a lucky punch. Listen to me: Only James Bond can knock someone out with a single blow. And maybe Jack Reacher or Mike Tyson. A car-salesman-turned-amateur-sleuth cannot.

And what of back eyes? If a character gets whacked in the eye in Chapter 3, he will have a black eye for two weeks, which will likely take you through the end of the book. He will not be “normal” in two days. A black eye is a contusion (bruise) and results from blood leaking into the tissues from tiny blood vessels, which are injured by the blow. It takes the body about two weeks to clear all that out. It will darken over two days, fade over four or five, turn greenish, brownish, and a sickly yellow before it disappears. On a good note, by about day seven, a female character might be able to hide it with make-up.

Similarly, what of the character who falls down the stairs and injures his back? He will not be able to run from or chase the bad guy or make love to his new lover the next day. He will need a few days (or maybe weeks) to heal. And he will limp, whine, and complain in the interim. And if he breaks something, like an arm or leg, he’ll need several weeks to recover.

I Can Run, and Jump, and Fight Like an Olympian: The typical fictional PI (maybe real ones, too) drinks too much, smokes too much, and eats donuts on a regular basis. He is not training for the Olympics. He will not be able to chase the villain for ten blocks. Two on a good day. And hills or stairs will reduce that to a very short distance. Yet chase montages in movies and books often seem to cover marathon distances. And then a fight breaks out. 

Of course, some characters can do all this. Not the PI mentioned above but maybe Dustin Hoffman can. Remember “Babe” Levy (Dustin Hoffman) in Marathon Man? He had to run for his life as Dr. Christian Szell (Sir Laurence Olivier) and his Nazi bad guys chased him endlessly. But early in the film, we learn that he runs around the reservoir in Central Park every day. He constantly tries to increase his distance, improve his time. He could run for his life.

Hopefully, when you run across medical malpractice in your reading you’ll be forgiving and enjoy the story anyway. But maybe not.

 

Criminal Mischief: Episode #21: Autopsy Of A Thriller: The Terminator

Criminal Mischief: Episode #21: Autopsy OF A Thriller: The Terminator

LISTEN: https://soundcloud.com/authorsontheair/episode-21-autopsy-of-a-thriller

SHOW NOTES: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief-notes/21-autopsy-of-a-thriller.html

PAST SHOWS: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief.html

 

The Autopsy of a Thriller

The Terminator (1984)

T = The Terminator

R = Kyle Reese

S = Sarah Conner

T appears in ball of light, takes clothes from punk after being stabbed and ripping out his heart. + – 0

R appears in ball of light, takes vagrants clothes, steals shotgun from police car, escapes from police, finds 3 Sarah Conners in phone book.

+-0

S works at Big Boy, ditsy and clumsy. + – 0

T steals guns from gun shop, kills owner + – 0

T finds 3 Sarah Conners in phone book. + – 0

T kills Sarah Conner #1. + – 0

S sees TV broadcast of Sarah Conner’s murder. + – 0

S date stands her up, she goes out alone. + – 0

Police learn of murder of 2nd Sarah Conner. + – 0

S heads out for night, R follows. + – 0

S in restaurant sees TV news of 2nd Sarah Conner murder, tries to call police, phone out of service   + – 0

S senses she’s being followed by R, ducks into disco, R follows, S calls police, can’t get through. + – 0

T goes to S’s apartment, kills roommate and boyfriend, hears call from Sarah who leaves message about where she is, sees photo ID of S. + – 0

S reaches police, they are coming to disco. + – 0

(Inciting Incident) 

T arrives, R and T have shoot-out. T shot multiple times but gets up. + – 0

S and R escape, T steals police car and chases + – 0

R explains that he is there to protect her and that she has been targeted for termination and that T is a cyborg that will not stop until S is dead. R tells Sarah that in the near future machines take over and start a nuclear war, then set out to destroy all humans. T must kill her to prevent her from having her son, John Conner, mankind’s savior from the machines that will rule the future world. + – 0

Chase resumes between R & S, T, and the police. S and R crash car, arrested by police, T escapes. + – 0

S learns that roommate was killed. + – 0

T repairs injured forearm and removes injured eye, revealing that he is indeed a cyborg.    + – 0

Psychiatrist explains to S that R is crazy and that T was likely on PCP and wearing a flak jacket. + – 0

(1st Turning Point) 

T attacks police station, killing many cops. + – 0

S and R steal car and escape. + – 0

T looks through Sarah’s address book, finds mother’s address. + – 0

S and R get room in motel out of city. Sarah calls her mother, tells her where they are, but she is talking to T.   + – 0

S and R make sticks of nitroglycerine and then make love. + – 0

T arrives, but S and R escape in stolen truck, T chases on motorcycle. + – 0

T avoids nitro sticks, S knocks T off bike, crashes truck, T is run over by 18-wheeler.     +   – 0

T gets up, takes over 18-wheeler, and chases S and R. + – 0

R slips nitro stick into truck, blowing it up in huge fireball, T burns in fire. + – 0

(2nd Turning Point) 

T rises from fire, now reduced to a metallic skeleton.  +-0

R and S hide in industrial building, T follows. + – 0

T corners S and R in building. + – 0

R places nitro stick in T’s ribs and blows him to pieces. + – 0

Upper half of T keeps coming, forcing S into corner. + – 0

(Climax) 

S leads T into crushing machine and crushes him. + – 0

(Denouement) 

R dies, pregnant Sarah leaves country to prepare for coming war. 

+-0

 
 

Criminal Mischief: Episode #18: Gunshot To The Chest

XRay Chest Bullet

 

Criminal Mischief: Episode #18: Gunshot To The Chest

LISTEN: https://soundcloud.com/authorsontheair/gswtochest

PAST SHOWS: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief.html

SHOW NOTES: http://www.dplylemd.com/criminal-mischief-notes/18-gunshot-to-the-chest.html

Gunshot wounds (GSWs) come in many flavors and those to the chest can be particularly dicey. Yet, a chest GSW can be a minor flesh wound, a major traumatic event with significant damage, or deadly. If you have a character who suffers such an injury, this podcast is for you.

Here are a few interesting questions about chest GSWs:

Could a Person Survive a Gunshot to the Chest in the 1880s?

Q: My scenario is set in 1880. A man in his early 20s is shot in the back by a rifle. He loses a lot of blood and is found a couple of hours later unconscious. Could he survive and if so how long would it take him it recuperate? Also, would it be possible to bring him to consciousness long enough for another man to get him into a buggy. Is any part of this scenario possible?

A: Everything about your scenario works. A gunshot wound (GSW) to the chest can kill in minutes, hours, days, or not at all. The victim would be in pain and may cough and sputter and may even cough up some blood. He could probably walk or crawl and maybe even fight and run if necessary. Painful, but possible. He would likely be consciousness so could even help get himself into the wagon.

If all goes well, he should be better and gingerly up and around in a week or two. He would be fully recovered in 6 to 8 weeks.

After surviving the initial GSW, the greatest risk to his life would a secondary wound infection. Since no antibiotics were available at that time, the death rate was very high—40 to 80 percent—for wound infections. But, if he did not develop an infection, he would heal up completely.

How Is A Gunshot To The Chest Treated?

Q: I have a few questions regarding a gunshot wound that my poor character will be sustaining later on in my story. Supposing it’s a fairly small caliber bullet (typical handgun fare, not buckshot or anything) and it hits near the heart without puncturing anything important, how long might his recovery time be? He’s a strong, kinda-healthy guy in his thirties, although he drinks a fair amount and used to smoke. He’ll be rushed to a high-quality hospital immediately and receive the best care throughout recovery…what’s his outlook? When will he be allowed to go home, if all goes well? How long before he’s healed to normal?  When will it be safe for him to walk around, drive, have sex, etc.?

A: In your story, what happens to your shooting victim depends upon what injuries he received. A gunshot wound (GSW to docs and cops) can be a minor flesh wound or can be immediately deadly or anywhere in between. It all depends on the caliber and speed of the bullet and the exact structures it hits. A shot to the heart may kill instantly or not. The victim could die in a few minutes or survive for days or could recover completely with proper medical care and surgery. It’s highly variable but ask any surgeon or ER doctor and they will tell you that it’s hard to kill someone with a gun. Even with a shot or two to the chest.

A small caliber and slow speed bullet—such as those fired by .22 and .25 caliber weapons—are less likely to kill than are heavier loads and higher velocity bullets such as .38, .357, or .45 caliber bullets, particularly if they are propelled by a magnum load—such as a .357 magnum or a .44 magnum. Also, the type of bullet makes a difference. Jacketed or coated bullets penetrate more while hollow point or soft lead bullets penetrate less but do more wide-spread damage as the bullet deforms on impact.

All that is nice but the bottom line is that whatever happens, happens. That is, a small, slow bullet may kill and a large, fast one may not. Any bullet may simply embed in the chest wall or strike a rib and never enter the chest. Or it could enter the heart and kill quickly. Or it could puncture a lung. The victim here would cough some blood, be very short of breath, and could die from bleeding into the lungs—basically drowning in their own blood. Or the lung could collapse and again cause pain and shortness of breath. But we have two lungs and unless the GSWs are to both lungs and both lungs collapse the person would be able to breathe, speak, even run away, call for help, or fight off the attacker. Whatever happens, happens.

This is good for fiction writers. It means you can craft your scene any way you want and it will work. He could suffer a simple flesh wound and have pain, shortness or breathe, and be very angry. He could have a lung injury and have the above symptoms plus be very short of breathe and cough blood.  If the bleeding was severe or if both lungs were injured he could become very weak, dizzy, and slip into shock. Here his blood pressure would be very low and with the injury to his lungs the oxygen content of his blood would dip to very low levels and he would lose consciousness as you want. This could happen in a very few minutes or an hour later, depending upon the rapidity of blood loss and the degree of injury to the lungs.

Once rescued, the paramedics would probably place an endotracheal (ET) tube into his lungs to help with breathing, start an IV to giver IV fluids, and transport him to the hospital immediately. He would then be seen by a trauma surgeon or chest surgeon and immediately undergo surgery to remove the bullets (if possible) and to repair the damaged lung or whatever else was injured. He could recover quickly without complications and go home in a week, rest there for a couple of weeks, return to part-time work for a few weeks and be full speed by 3 to 4 months. Or he could have one of any number of complications and die. Or be permanently disabled, etc. It all depends upon the nature of Injuries, the treatment, and luck.

What Does a Close-range Gun Shot to the Chest Look Like?

Q: I have a question regarding gunshot wounds. In my latest mystery, a man and a woman, my heroine, struggle for a gun. It goes off, hitting the man in the chest. I want the man to live, but be temporarily incapacitated and need hospital care, so if the chest isn’t the best location, other suggestions are welcome. What would the gunshot wound likely look like before and after the man’s shirt was removed? Would there be a lot of bleeding where my heroine would take his shirt off and stuff it over the wound?

A: A gunshot wound (GSW) to the chest would work well. For it to be quickly fatal, the bullet would have to damage the heart or the aorta or another major blood vessel, such as the main pulmonary (lung) arteries. Under these circumstances, bleeding into the chest, the lungs,  and around the heart would likely be extensive and death could be almost instantaneous or in a very few minutes. He could survive even these injuries, but this would require quick and aggressive treatment, including emergent surgery, and a pile of luck.

If the bullet entered the lung, the victim could die from severe bleeding into the lung and basically drowning in his own blood. Or not. He could survive such an injury and would then require surgery to remove the bullet, control the bleeding within the lung, and repair the lung itself. This would require a couple of hours of surgery, a week in the hospital, and a couple of months to recover fully.

The bullet could simply embed in the chest wall and never enter the chest cavity. It could bounce off the sternum (breast bone) or a rib and deflect out of the chest, into the soft tissues of the chest wall, or downward into the abdomen. Once a bullet strikes bone, it can be deflected in almost any direction. Sometimes full-body X-rays are required to find the bullet. If the bullet simply embedded beneath his skin or against a rib or the sternum, he would require a minor surgical procedure to remove the bullet and debride (clean-up) the wound. He would be hospitalized for only 2 to 3 days and would go home on antibiotics and basic wound care.

Close-range, but not direct muzzle contact, wounds typically have a small central entry wound, a black halo called an abrasion collar, and often an area of charring around the wound. The charring comes from the hot gases that exit the barrel with the bullet. In addition, there is often tattooing, which is a speckled pattern around the entry wound. This is from the soot and unburned powder that follows the bullet out of the muzzle and embeds (tattoos) into the skin. The spread of this pattern depends upon how close the muzzle is to the entry point, If it over about 3 feet, then no tattooing or charring will occur.

In your scenario, the victim’s shirt would likely collect the soot and heat so that it would be charred and “tattooed,” rather than the victim’s skin. So, the shirt would show an entry hole, charring, and blood. Once the victim’s shirt was removed, the entry wound likely be a simple hole without any charring or tattooing, since the shirt would have collected this material and absorbed most of the heat. The wound could bleed a lot, a little, or almost none. It depends upon how many of the blood vessels that course through the skin and muscles are damaged.

Yes, her initial efforts should be the application of pressure over the wound to control bleeding until the paramedics arrive.

For more fun questions check out my Q&A books:

F&F200X302

FORENSICS and FICTION: http://www.dplylemd.com/book-details/forensics–fiction.html

MF&F 200X320

MORE FORENSICS and FICTION: http://www.dplylemd.com/book-details/more-forensics-and-fiction.html

M&M 200X300

MURDER AND MAYHEM: http://www.dplylemd.com/book-details/murder-and-mayhem.html

 
 
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