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Category Archives: Crime Scene

Muscle Proteins and the Time of Death

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In any homicide, one the most important things, along with the cause and manner of death, that the ME must determine is the approximate time of death. This will help eliminate some suspects—-if they are far away from the scene and with many witnesses, for example—-and point the finger at others—-who might have been in the area at the time the murder occurred.

The problem is that most methods used to determine the time of death are inaccurate at best. They tend to be best guesses. And they are mostly useful only during the first 48 to 72 hours.

Check out my article “Timely Death” for a brief overview of how the time of death is estimated.

Or grab a copy of Forensics For Dummies or Howdunnit: Forensics for an in-depth discussion of this topic.

Researchers at the University of Salzburg are working in a new method that might allow the time of death determination to be accurately made up to 10 days after death. Their research suggests that measuring the rate of muscle protein degradation yields a clue to the time that has lapsed since death. If this technique proves to be accurate and reproducible in humans, it would be a giant step forward in criminal investigations.

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Wildfires and Forensic Science

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Here in Southern California, we are not strangers to wild fires. Other parts of the world are similarly afflicted. Some are natural, from lightning for example, but all too often they are the result of arson.

Forensic wildfire investigators face a difficult problem when analyzing a potential arson scene since often most, if not all, of the evidence is consumed by the fire. But not always. They search for the point, or points, or origin and then apply their knowledge and skill to determine how the fire progressed. This can often lead to crucial evidence in uncovering who started the fire. And why.

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Crime and Science Radio: A Fly for the Prosecution: An Interview with Forensic Entomologist Dr. Lee Goff

Join Jan Burke and me as we discuss bugs and bodies with forensic entomologist Dr. M. Lee Goff.

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BIO: Dr. M. Lee Goff is one of the founding members of the American Board of Forensic Entomology, from which he retired in 2013.  Professor Emeritus, in Forensic Sciences at  Chaminade University of Hawaii and Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Hawaii, Manoa,, he received his B.S. in Zoology from the University of Hawaii at Manoa in 1966, M.S. in Biology from California State University, Long Beach in 1974, and Ph.D. in Entomology from the University of Hawaii at Manoa in 1977. He was Professor of Entomology and Chair of the Entomology Graduate Program at University of Hawaii at Manoa from 1983 until 2001. He then moved to Chaminade University of Honolulu as Director of the Forensic Sciences Program. Dr. Goff has been involved in forensic entomology for a period of over 25 years. He is currently a consultant in forensic entomology for the Office of the Medical Examiner, City and County of Honolulu and other state and federal agencies throughout the world.  He also serves as a consultant for the crime dramas CSI and Bones. He is curator of a traveling museum exhibition called CSI: Crime Scene Insects.

Additionally Dr. Goff has served as a member of the instructional staff for the FBI Academy course in Detection and Recovery of Human Remains taught at Quantico, Virginia. He has published over 200 papers in scientific journals, authored the popular book, A Fly for the Prosecution, co-edited the recent publication “Advances in Forensic Entomology” and participated in over 350 homicide investigations, consulting on cases worldwide.

LISTENhttp://www.blogtalkradio.com/suspensemagazine/2015/04/30/crime-and-science-radio-with-special-guest-dr-lee-goff

LINKS:

Professor Emeritus Goff’s faculty Page on Chaminade University’s site https://www.chaminade.edu/natural-sciences/faculty/M_Lee_Goff.php

PBS Nature‘s Crime Scene Creatures Interview: Forensic Entomologist Lee Goff http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/crime-scene-creatures-interview-forensic-entomologist-lee-goff/302/

Dr. Goff Interviewed on KHNL-TV https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnNe8SNAz08

National Geographic Channel 2004 Interview with Dr. Goff http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/04/0423_040423_tvbugman.html

American Board of Forensic Entomology http://www.forensicentomologist.org

Insects.org  http://www.insects.org

Acarological Society of America https://sites.google.com/site/acarologicalsociety/home

Acarology: The Study of Mites and Ticks (UK’s Natural History Museum) http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/acarology/

Entomological Society of America http://www.entsoc.org/home

Insect Collections, Zoos, Museums, and Butterfly Gardens in North America http://www.entsoc.org/resources/links/zoos

Amateur Entomologists’ Society: Forensic Entomology http://www.amentsoc.org/insects/insects-and-man/forensic-entomology.html

How Stuff Works: What do bugs have to do with forensic science? http://science.howstuffworks.com/forensic-entomology2.htm

Smithsonian Channel Catching Killers: Insect Evidence http://www.smithsonianchannel.com/shows/catching-killers/insect-evidence/1003122/141561

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Your Hair Dye Just Might Sink Your Perfect Crime

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Hair and fibers and other trace evidence are often unknowingly left at the crime scene by the perpetrator. And those clever CSI folks can find these tidbits and analyze them. From hair, they can usually determine the species (human, cat, dog?), the color, the thickness and curliness, whether it was cut or yanked out, and other things.

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But what if the hair has been altered with coloring or various chemical treatments? No problem. In fact, such alterations could add another layer of individuality to hair found at a crime scene. Using Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), dyes and chemical treatments can be analyzed and such analysis can lead to the type of treatment and even the manufacturer of the product. This could prove to be critical evidence in connecting a suspect to a crime scene.

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With Modern Forensic Science Is the Perfect Crime Impossible?

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Probably. Likely. Not to mention that getting away with any crime requires a healthy dose of luck.

Professor Wesley Vernon of Huddersfield University agrees. To commit the perfect crime he says you must “get as far away as possible from the crime scene” and “pay someone to pay someone to pay someone to do it for you.”

And even these tricks are not likely to work. Bad luck being what bad luck is.

 

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14 Comments

Posted by on April 28, 2015 in Crime Scene, General Forensics

 

Assessing The Crime Scene in 3D

Crime scene documentation is a critical step in criminal investigations. Knowing the spatial relationships between perpetrator, victim, and evidence items such as weapons, shoe prints, blood spatter, etc., as well as the physical layout of the scene, affords investigators a better look at who did what to whom. For many years, crime scene sketches, photos, and videos have proven useful in this regard.

Such techniques are discussed in detail in my book HOWDUNNIT: FORENSICS

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But wouldn’t a 3D holograph of the scene offer an even better understanding? Wouldn’t it be useful to “show” jurors how the crime actually went down? Looks like that might now be possible.

The process begins with laser mapping of the scene:

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As stated by Jeremy Bailenson of the Virtual Human Interaction Lab at Stanford University in California: ”Imagine you could transport the entire jury, the judge, the litigators – everybody – back to the crime scene during the crime.”

Yeah. Imagine that.

 

Toilet Paper to the Rescue

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“I have a gun. Give me $300.”

Here’s a bit of advice: If you plan to rob a bank or a business, say a pizza joint, don’t write your “stick up” note on toilet paper and then leave the roll behind for the police to find when they search your home. If you do, you give the investigators much to work with in connecting you to the crime. Don’t believe me? Ask Eric Frey.

In this case, Frey left behind “indented writing” on the roll and, much to his dismay, investigators were able to match this “writing” that that on the note.

This is definitely an odd case of Forensic Document Examination.

Two other forensic techniques that could enter the picture here would be chemical ink analysis and fracture pattern assessment. The ink on the note could be chemically matched to the marker pen found at Frey’s residence and this could serve to further link him to the note.

Also, since no two things fracture, crack, or tear the same way, analysis of the torn edges could match the note paper to the roll—-if no other tissues had been torn away after the note was removed. The tear line between the roll and the note paper would match and this match is about as good as DNA or fingerprints. Such tears, like broken glass or chipped paint or broken sticks, are called fracture patterns and they are highly individual.

There is an entire chapter on the fascinating field of Document examination in my forensic books Howdunnit: Forensics and Forensics For Dummies.

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And a few links for you to explore:

A Simplified Guide to Forensic Document Examination: http://www.forensicsciencesimplified.org/docs/how.html

FBI Forensic Ink Analysis: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/july2005/research/2005_07_research02.htm/

Glass Fracture Patterns: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/241445.pdf

Howdunnit:Forensics and my other Forensic Books: http://www.dplylemd.com/DPLyleMD/Books-Forensics.html

 
9 Comments

Posted by on February 24, 2015 in Crime Scene, Document Examination

 
 
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