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Author Archives: D.P. Lyle, MD

About D.P. Lyle, MD

Author, Lecturer, Story Consultant

Q&A: What Injuries Can Occur With a Car Bomb?

Q&A: What Injuries Can Occur With a Car Bomb?

Q: How far away would you have to be from a car bomb (the kind that is detonated by starting the car) to survive with injuries and what sorts of injuries might you sustain in the blast?

car bomb

 

A: This is a question that is virtually impossible to answer with any degree of accuracy. There are entirely too many variables involved. How big is the bomb? How big is the car? How close is close? What direction does the shrapnel fly and in which direction is the concussive force of the bomb directed? Are there any intervening walls or structures that might dampen the concussive force or block or redirect the shrapnel? Each of these variables, and many others, must be taken into account before any prediction of possible injuries can be entertained.

Lets look at a few general principles however. Big bombs cause big problems and little bombs cause less. A large bomb can produce a massive concussive force that will spread out for many yards in every direction. It can also produce shrapnel that can fly many hundreds of feet. A small bomb, needless to say, would release a smaller concussive force and any shrapnel would move at a slower rate and therefore do less damage.

Let’s assume that this is a moderate sized bomb and the victim is standing close enough to receive injuries from the explosion. There are several types of injuries that can occur with a bomb.

If the person is close enough and the bomb is of the type that produces a great deal of heat, then burns over the skin and face can occur and even the victim’s clothing might catch fire. This could produce severe injury to the flesh and the lungs.

The concussive force of the bomb is simply a wave of air molecules that are accelerated to very high speed. When the wave strikes an object or a person, damage and bodily trauma will result. This is why a bomb will destroy a building, knock down a wall, or kill a person within the concussive umbrella. If the force is strong enough it can burst eardrums, cause sinuses within the nose and face to bleed, rupture the lungs, rupture the abdomen and internal organs, and many other nasty injuries. If the person is slightly further away, or if the concussive force is dampened somewhat, then injuries to the eardrums and sinuses may occur but the other more severe injuries to the lungs and internal organs might not occur.

Shrapnel presents a very difficult and dangerous situation. With a car exploding all types of shrapnel can be fired in every direction. Chunks of metal and glass, complete doors or windows, beams of metal and even the engine can be launched in any direction. The types of injuries that someone would suffer depends upon exactly what strikes them, where they are struck, and with what speed and force they are hit. I think it would be obvious that if a car door or engine or some large piece of metal struck someone at very high velocity it would most likely kill them instantly and if not their injuries would be so severe that without very aggressive medical treatment and luck they would die from these in short order. But what about smaller pieces of glass and metal? These can penetrate the head, the chest, or the abdomen and damage vital organs and lead to death very quickly. Or they can enter the same areas and lead to massive injury and bleeding, which can then lead to death in minutes to an hour or so. Or they could simply be flesh wounds and the person could survive but would likely require surgical repair of the wounds and treatment with antibiotics to prevent secondary infections.

You can see almost anything can happen in this explosive situation.  A large explosion at a great distance could easily do the same damage as a smaller one where the person was standing close by. Any bomb where the concussive force and shrapnel were directed away from the person might produce no injuries while if the victim were standing in the path of the concussive wave and the shrapnel he could be killed instantly. And anywhere in between. This great degree of variation in what actually happens is good for storytelling since it means that you can craft your story almost any way you want.

 

Can a DNA Sample Reveal Age?

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DNA found at crime scenes can be extremely useful in identifying a perpetrator. But this only works if they have a known suspect and a DNA sample from that suspect, or if the perpetrator is in the national DNA database—-CODIS. Without something to compare the crime scene DNA sample against, DNA is not very useful. Same can be said for fingerprints. But perhaps DNA offers something else.

Employing DNA obtained from a crime scene, Familial DNA has been used to narrow the list of potential suspects and this has proven useful in many cases—such as the famous Grim Sleeper serial killer. I have blogged on this before in cases such as The Boston Strangler and the amazing case of Yara Gambirasio.

DNA will of course reveal gender, but there is also research suggesting that race, hair and eye color, and physical features such as stature might also be determined from a DNA sample. These aren’t completely worked out yet but they are intriguing aspects of DNA analysis.

But what if a DNA sample could be used to determine the approximate age of the person? This would definitely help as, once again, it would narrow the suspect list. For example, if the crime scene DNA could be shown to have come from someone who was approximately 25 years old it would effectively eliminate a 60-year-old suspect. But is this possible? Maybe.

A new approach, using a process of gene expression called methylation, seems to offer hope. Researchers at the KU Leuven University in Belgium have developed a technique for assessing the degree of methylation in a DNA sample. They believe that this analysis will narrow the age range of the individual down to a four or five year window. If this proves to be true, law enforcement will have another useful forensic science tool.

 

Crime and Science Radio: Personal Violence: Sex and Domestic Crimes: An Interview with Former Federal Prosecutor and Author Allison Leotta

AllisonLeotta-portrait

BIO: For twelve years, Allison Leotta was a federal prosecutor in Washington, D.C., where she specialized in sex crimes, domestic violence, and crimes against children. Drawing on this experience, she now writes legal thrillers, for which she has been dubbed  “the female John Grisham.” Her goal is for John Grisham to be dubbed “the male Allison Leotta.”

After publishing her debut, LAW OF ATTRACTION, Simon & Schuster asked Allison to continue writing about her fictional sex-crimes prosecutor, Anna Curtis.  A series was born! There are now four books in the Anna Curtis series, and a fifth is in the works.

LAW OF ATTRACTION earned a starred review in Library Journal, which said, “In this riveting debut, Leotta joins the big league with pros like Linda Fairstein and Lisa Scottoline.” Allison’s second novel, DISCRETION, was named one of the Top Ten Books of 2012 by Strand Magazine and Best Suspense Novel of 2012 by Romance Reviews Today. Her third novel, SPEAK OF THE DEVIL, was named a Best Book of 2013 by Suspense Magazine.  The fourth book in the Anna Curtis series, A GOOD KILLING, will be released this May.

USA Today says Allison’s writing is “as real as it gets.”

Allison is also a contributor to the Huffington Post, where she reality-checks TV crime dramas like Law & Order: SVU. Her own blog, The Prime-Time Crime Review, was named one of the best legal blogs in America by the American Bar Association. Allison has provided legal commentary for outlets such as CNN, MSNBC, PBS, and Reuters TV.  She serves on the Board of Directors of the Mystery Writers of America.

A graduate of Michigan State University and Harvard Law School, Allison lives outside of Washington, D.C., with her husband, Michael Leotta, and their two sons.

LISTEN: http://www.blogtalkradio.com/suspensemagazine/2016/03/16/crime-and-science-radio-with-special-guest-author-allison-leotta

Link goes live Saturday May 7,2016 at 10 a.m. Pacific

LINKS:

Allison’s Website: http://allisonleotta.com

Allison’s Blog: http://allisonleotta.com/blog/

Allison on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/allisonleottabooks/

Allison on Twitter: https://twitter.com/AllisonLeotta

Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/allison-leotta/

 

Last Good Girl cover

A GOOD KILLING

 

PitchFest: A Place to Sell Your Story

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As is you needed another reason to come to ThrillerFest in New York this July, Check out PitchFest–a place where your manuscript can find a home.

DP Lyle
ITW VP for Education; CraftFest and Master CraftFest Director

 

A Different and Better PitchFest
Thursday July 7th

Calling all writers!

PitchFest 2016 is weeks away and is shaping up to be the best PitchFest ever offered by ThrillerFest. This event is an overwhelming opportunity for writers of all genres to meet with the best of the best in the book industry.

Four reasons you should attend:

1)      The most agents and editors ever gathered at one time to hear your pitches.

2)      The best agents and editors.

  • The “sellingest” thriller and mystery agents in our industry were invited to attend this year, and over 50 have confirmed that they want to meet you.

3)      The largest gathering of editors.

  • Six editors from publishers such as Tor/Forge, Kensington, and Audible will be in attendance to hear your pitch.

4)      Laser focus on what’s hot.

  • With audio books on the rise, we’ve secured Coleen Barr from Audible to join us.
  • With Teen and Young Adult books flying off the shelves, we have the largest gathering of agents seeking YA in our history.

5)      And for the first time in our event history, we’ve added a “No Pitch Zone” with experts to help you during the PitchFest event.

  • Renowned experts, such as agents Janet Reid and Barbara Poelle, along with editors Chantelle Aimee Osman and Shannon Jamieson Vasquez will be available to assist you with your query letter or review your first page and offer pointers.

Sign up for PitchFest today at http://thrillerfest.com/registration/.

If you have any questions, feel free to ask me at Sandra@SandraBrannan.com.

Click Here to Register

Sandra Brannan
Author of the Liv Bergen Mystery Series
PitchFest Director

 

 
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Posted by on May 5, 2016 in Writing

 

Even Identical Twins Have Different DNA

For years the dogma was that identical twins possessed DNA profiles that were not distinguishable from one another. But things are changing.

Fraternal (dizygotic) twins come from two eggs and two sperm and are as different as if born years apart. They are twins solely because they shared the mother’s womb at the same time. But, identical twins (monozygotic) come from a single egg and sperm. They are formed when the fertilized egg undergoes its first division and the two new daughter cells move apart, each then proceeding to form a separate individual. Since they came from the same fertilized egg, the share the same DNA. In fact, the two would be indistinguishable by standard PCR-STR DNA Profiling.

 

Twins

 

But, in reality, even identical twins have distinct DNA. We just weren’t able to see the differences. Before now.

As each twin embryo grows and develops in utero, and the cells continue to multiply, the replication (copying) of each twin’s DNA isn’t perfect. Minor errors or variations begin to appear so that by birth each Twin’s DNA is slightly different from its sibling. And as life goes on, each twin is subjected to different environmental stresses, which is turn alters each one’s DNA replication.

As opposed to STR, which looks at repeating short sequences of bases within the DNA strand, a newer DNA technique, known as Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), gives the examiner a complete DNA sequence of the strand being analyzed. That is the exact sequence of bases in each strand is determined and this can reveal the differences in the DNA of identical twins. Another newer technique known as High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis (HRMA) might offer still another method to make this distinction.

So even identical twins are not so identical.

Want to know more about DNA profiling? Check out the updated 2nd Edition of FORENSICS FOR DUMMIES.

 

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2 Comments

Posted by on May 2, 2016 in DNA, Uncategorized

 

Guest Blogger: Lisa Black: Everything Old Is New Again

EVERYTHING OLD IS NEW AGAIN

My character, Cleveland forensic specialist Maggie Gardner, is unrealistic in one respect—she still spends a lot of time at her microscope looking at tiny bits of trace evidence, hairs, fibers, paint, and glass.

No one does that any more. Well, maybe Abby on NCIS, but she’s the most unrealistic forensic person on screen, even though she’s so cute we don’t care.

Sure, on old episodes of Dragnet you can see some nerdy guy in a lab coat explain how these pollen spores are only found in one quadrant of the city, but that art had already died before I started in forensics in 1994. We got spoiled by DNA, by ‘absolutely yes’ or ‘absolutely no’ answers. No one wanted to hear that this red nylon was ‘consistent with’ the suspect’s shirt, because they wouldn’t be hearing how many red nylon shirts were manufactured, how many were sold in this area, and while we’re at it let’s hack into Macy’s sales figures and find out who they were sold to. Unlike television, forensic labs do not have databases of all this information and would probably be violating a few important laws if they did. Nope, ‘consistent with’ was all you got. Take it or leave it.

 

Polyurethane_Fibers

POLYURETHANE FIBERS

They left it. Microscopic analysis became more or less a thing of the past. Forensic techs today wouldn’t recognize a pollen spore or know what to do with it if they did. Fibers are ignored. Hairs are examined only to screen out candidates for, well, DNA.

Imagine my surprise, then, when I peruse the latest Journal of Forensic Sciences and stumble on an article about using something called palynological scanning to rapidly evaluate suspect and victim testimony.

 

pollen

POLLEN

Palynology, it turns out, is a fancy name for…pollen. Pollen and spores and other ‘microscopic entities’ of trees, shrubs and herbs. No hairs, fibers or paint, but you get the idea. This analysis proved useful in some cases of rape or assault, in situations where the victim and suspect both contacted the ground and pieces of the ambient flora could attach to their clothing.

 

trees

 

In one case the suspect said he and his victim engaged on a lawn behind a public building. The victim said he attacked in a heavily wooded area, the spot surrounded by beech, birch and sycamore trees. Each site had a distinct mix of items—palynomorphs– with complicated Latin names. The suspect didn’t deny that he had made contact with the victim so willingly gave up the clothing he’d been wearing at the time, and sure enough, all those little palynomorphs indicated that he had been in the woods and not on the lawn. This did not prove that he had committed the crime. It only proved that he had lied about the sequence of events, and that was sufficient to prompt a confession. Otherwise this case would have languished in an eternal hell of ‘he said vs. she said.’

Of course had this guy listened to legal counsel before he made a statement, he probably would have figured out to come up with an alternative, and innocent, reason to have been rolling on the ground near the crime scene, and all these spores would have been for naught. As it is, surely the defense will bring out statistics regarding the vast number of beech and sycamore trees in the area, perhaps in the suspect’s own neighborhood, and the idea that maybe he had been doing some gardening earlier in the week in that same pair of pants. This is why things like pollen analysis fell out of favor with the courts…but the spores are still out there, voluminous, distinct and quite concrete little buggers that will stick in all sorts of places one might wish they wouldn’t. So are hairs, fibers, and paint. Maybe ‘consistent with’ is all you can get out of them. But maybe, sometimes, that’s enough.

So in my books Maggie still looks at all this stuff because it’s more visible and visceral than yet one more DNA sample. Let’s face it—you’ve seen one cotton swab, you’ve seen them all. Bright clothing fibers are much more entertaining.

And this trace evidence will lead her down a number of roads—some of which, it turns out, she’d be better off avoiding.

Wiltshire et al. “A Rapid and Efficient Method for Evaluation of Suspect Testimony: Palynological Screening.” Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 60, #6, Nov 2015, pp 1441-1450.

 

L Black

Lisa Black has spent over 20 years in forensic science, first at the coroner’s office in Cleveland Ohio and now as a certified latent print examiner and CSI at a Florida police dept. Her books have been translated into 6 languages, one reached the NYT Bestseller’s List and one has been optioned for film and a possible TV series.

Lisa’s Website: http://www.lisa-black.com

 

that darkness cover

 

Hello! Just a quick note to let you know that my new book, That Darkness, is now available wherever books are sold!

It seemed like a typical week for crime scene specialist Maggie Gardiner–a gang boss shot in an alley, a lost girl draped over an ancient grave, a human trafficker dumped in the river–nothing all that out of the ordinary for the Cleveland police department as spring turns toward summer along the Erie banks. The methods are usual, the victims unsurprising–but when she notices a pattern, a tenuous similarity among the cases, she begins to realize that her days will never be typical again. How much of her life, her career, her friends, will she be willing to risk to do what’s right?

Jack Renner is a killer who does not kill for any of the conventional reasons…no mania, no personal demons. He simply wants to make the world a safer place. He doesn’t think of himself as a dangerous person–but he can’t let anyone stop him. Not even someone as well-meaning as Maggie Gardiner.

Maggie has the self-sufficiency of a born bit-of-a-loner. She works with a bevy of clever experts surrounded by armed police officers. She is both street smart and book smart, having seen the worst the city has to offer.

But Maggie Gardiner is not safe. And, until she can draw Jack Renner into the light, neither is anyone else.

Jeff Lindsay, author of the Dexter series, says: “Lisa Black always delivers authentic characters in riveting stories. That Darkness takes things to a spellbinding new level with a taut and haunting story that will stay with you long after you finish reading it.”

Publisher’s Weekly says: “The intriguing forensic details help drive the plot to its satisfying conclusion.”

“Black is one of the best writers of the world of forensics, and her latest introduces Maggie Gardiner, who works for the Cleveland Police Department. Her relentless pursuit of answers in a dark world of violence is both inspiring and riveting. Readers who enjoy insight into a world from an expert in the field should look no further than Black. Although Cornwell is better known, Black deserves more attention for her skillful writing – and hopefully this will be her breakout book.”– RT Book Reviews, 4 Stars (Top Pick)

 

Crime and Science Radio: Things That Go Boom in the Night: An Interview with Weapons and Explosives Expert and Author John Gilstrap

High Resolution Author Photo

BIO: John Gilstrap is the New York Times bestselling author of Friendly Fire, Nick of Time, Against All Enemies, End Game, Soft Targets, High Treason, Damage Control, Threat Warning, Hostage Zero, No Mercy, Nathan’s Run, At All Costs, Even Steven, Scott Free and Six Minutes to Freedom.  Four of his books have been purchased or optioned for the Big Screen.  In addition, John has written four screenplays for Hollywood, adapting the works of Nelson DeMille, Norman McLean and Thomas Harris.  He will co-produce the film adaptation of his book, Six Minutes to Freedom, which should begin filming in the spring of 2016 for a 2017 release.

A frequent speaker at literary events, John also teaches seminars on suspense writing techniques at a wide variety of venues, from local libraries to The Smithsonian Institution.  Outside of his writing life, John is a renowned safety expert with extensive knowledge of explosives, weapons systems, hazardous materials, and fire behavior.  John lives in Fairfax, VA.

LISTEN: http://www.blogtalkradio.com/suspensemagazine/2016/03/09/crime-and-science-radio-with-special-guest-bestselling-author-john-gilstrap

Link goes live Saturday 4-23-16 at 10 a.m. Pacific

LINKS:

John’s Website: http://www.johngilstrap.com

Weapons Resource: http://www.nssf.org/newsroom/writers/guide/ (a great 40,000-foot resource for writers who write about weapons)

Weapons Used in Movies: http://www.imfdb.org/index.php/Category:Movie (This site allows you to pull up a movie title and see all of the weapons used.)

 

Friendly Fire

NICK OF TIME MM (print) (1)

 
 
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